The Carter Center has worked with the people of Sudan since 1986 to help them resolve conflict, negotiate peace, increase crop production, and prevent or eliminate devastating neglected diseases.
The Carter Center helped find ways to end Sudan's civil war, as President Carter worked directly to negotiate between the parties and to help focus local, regional, and international opinion on peace, not war. Milestones include negotiation of the 1995 "Guinea worm cease-fire," which gave international health workers almost six months of relative peace to enter areas of Sudan previously inaccessible due to fighting, and the 1999 Nairobi Agreement between Sudan and Uganda, in which the governments pledged to stop supporting rebels acting against each other's governments. The Carter Center also observed elections in Sudan in 2010 and the historic referendum on independence for South Sudan in 2011.
The Carter Center has worked since the late 1980s to address conflict in Sudan, first in the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) and more recently through efforts to encourage a constructive relationship between Sudan and the newly independent South Sudan. The reasons for conflict in Sudan have been highly complicated, including ethnic and regional power struggles, religious differences, disputes over oil production and revenues, and issues of governance, which left many southerners feeling deeply marginalized and many in other regions feeling similarly unrepresented.
For years, the most visible conflict was between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), the major Southern rebel faction, and the National Islamic Front government of President Omar al-Bashir, later renamed the National Congress Party, or NCP. While power and wealth-sharing were at the core of the conflict, seemingly intractable disagreements over the proper role of religion in Sudan and the right to self-determination for the south often defined the civil war.
President Carter's first direct mediation effort in Sudan was between the government and the SPLM/A in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1989. He remained in close contact with the leadership of the parties and other key players and sought to narrow differences and promote peace.
In 1995, he secured a cease-fire from President Bashir and then-SPLM/A leader Dr. John Garang to allow for the treatment of Guinea worm and other diseases, pilot the effort against river blindness, and provide an opportunity for children to be immunized against polio and other illnesses. The "Guinea worm cease-fire" lasted almost six months.
In 2002, regional and international parties, including the United States, made a significant effort to help the parties develop a peace agreement. In March of that year, President Carter visited Khartoum in the North and Rumbek in southern Sudan, meeting with Bashir and SPLM/A leaders. Later that month, President Carter hosted Dr. Garang at the Center in Atlanta for further talks.
These regional and international efforts eventually led to a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005 by the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A. The Center supported the negotiation process by providing training to both the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A and intervening in other ways to support the mediation effort led by the Inter-governmental Authority on Development.
Even as peace was being achieved between the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A, conflict in the western region of Darfur escalated, attracting international attention. The war in Darfur continues and, in 2011, a new war broke out in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, two states in the southern part of the new Sudan. The war in the "Two Areas," as it is known, pits the government against the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army – North (SPLA-N), most of which is composed of former SPLA/M fighters in northern Sudan after the independence of South Sudan in July 2011. As of December 2014, an estimated 500,000 people had been displaced by the conflict in the "Two Areas," while an estimated 2.5 million remain displaced by the fighting in Darfur.
After years of inconclusive negotiations with both Darfuri armed groups and the SPLA-N, and following a visit by President Carter to Khartoum in January 2014, President Bashir announced the opening of a "National Dialogue" on peace and national unity, the economy, basic rights and freedoms, national identity, and constitutional review and governance. To date, however, progress on National Dialogue has been slow.
The Carter Center regularly meets with Sudanese actors and pays close attention to the ongoing conflicts in Sudan, as well as the National Dialogue, and is studying potential activities to help bring lasting peace.
Since South Sudan's independence, South Sudan and Sudan have continued to experience tensions, primarily over the oil pipeline between the two countries, oil revenue, the disputed borderline, contested territories along the border, especially Abyei, and support to armed groups operating in the rival country.
The Carter Center's Conflict Resolution Program has been involved in attempting to resolve these disputes through support to the Sudan-South Sudan Dialogue Group, which is composed of prominent civil society figures and aims at creating a peaceful dialogue between the two countries in order to further normalize relations.
The contested area of Abyei, to which both Sudan and South Sudan lay claim, lies at the heart of current frictions. In March 2011, the Sudanese Armed Forces invaded Abyei, displacing over 110,000 Ngok Dinka residents of the area. Three months later, the Sudanese forces withdrew under an arrangement that saw the deployment of United Nations peacekeeping forces to the area. In October 2013, the Ngok Dinka held a unilateral referendum, not backed by Juba, Khartoum, or international actors, in which they voted overwhelmingly to join South Sudan. The vote, however, changed little on the ground, and the territory remains a no man's land.
In February 2012, Sudan and South Sudan signed a Non-Aggression Pact, in which each agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the other. However, in April, following skirmishes along the border, South Sudan seized the oil-producing area of Heglig. Soon after, the U.N. Security Council passed Resolution 2046 calling for an immediate cease-fire, the withdrawal of forces, and negotiations, and SPLA forces withdrew. As tensions eased, in September 2012 the two governments signed a series of Cooperation Agreements on economic and oil matters, borders, nationality, and security.
In 2013, in partnership with the Future Studies Centre in Khartoum and the Ebony Centre for Strategic Studies in Juba, The Carter Center launched a series of non-governmental dialogues between prominent leaders from Sudan and South Sudan in hopes of strengthening peace and creating a lasting understanding between the two countries. The initiative created a forum for key individuals to come up with ideas on what needs to be done in practical terms and in an achievable way. The initiative is co-chaired by Gen. Lazaro Sumbeiywo, chief mediator of the 2005 Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and Ambassador David Kapya, special adviser to the former president of Tanzania, Benjamin Mkapa. At present, the Dialogue Group primarily works to encourage at high levels the implementation of the 2012 Cooperation Agreements and other similar bilateral agreements between Sudan and South Sudan.
During the course of the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), the internal conflict between the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A was complicated by hostilities between the Sudanese and Ugandan governments, stemming in part from alleged links between Kampala and the SPLM/A and between Khartoum and the Lord's Resistance Army. For many years, the LRA kept northern Uganda in a state of almost continuous insecurity, attracting particular attention with its use of child soldiers, who were kidnapped from their homes in northern Uganda and forced to fight, often against their relatives and neighbors.
In 1999, President Carter and the Center negotiated the Nairobi Agreement between Sudan and Uganda, in which both sides committed to stop supporting forces against each other and agreed to re-establish full diplomatic relations between them, opening the door for improved regional relations. Full diplomatic relations subsequently were restored between the two countries. Read the Nairobi Agreement, Dec. 8, 1999.
Following the signing of the Nairobi Agreement, the Center engaged intensively to ensure its implementation, convening a multitude of ministerial and security meetings between the two governments and other interested parties and making strenuous efforts, which unfortunately were ultimately inconclusive, to initiate dialogue between the LRA and the government of Uganda to end the conflict in the northern region of that country.
After more than 20 years of civil strife that displaced millions of Sudanese and resulted in the deaths of nearly 2 million people, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement brought hope for a transition from a state of conflict to development, democracy, and peace. Calling for democratic elections throughout Sudan, the agreement offered a more transparent, representative political structure for all Sudanese. The Carter Center observed national elections in 2010 and the January 2011 referendum on the self-determination of Southern Sudan that resulted from the agreement.
The April 2010 elections in Sudan were mandated by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The Center launched its observation of these elections in February 2008 with the deployment of 12 long-term observers to assess the electoral process. An additional 20 medium-term observers were deployed to observe both static and mobile centers during the voter registration period, and in early April 2010, they were joined by 70 short-term observers to witness the balloting, counting, and tabulation processes for the national elections.
Although the election process was generally peaceful, Carter Center observers found it fell far short of Sudan's domestic and international obligations in many respects. Intimidation and violence in some areas of Sudan undercut inclusiveness; civic education was insufficient; the inaccuracy of the final voter registry prevented full participation in the process; insufficient materials were provided to many polling stations; the environment in Darfur did not support the holding of democratic elections; and vote tabulation throughout the country lacked important safeguards for accuracy and transparency.
The referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan was described in the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement as the final benchmark of the agreement, which ended more than 20 years of civil conflict. The Carter Center undertook one of its largest election observation missions ever to support this critical vote.
The Carter Center launched its mission to observe the referendum in August 2010, and in September, deployed 16 long-term observers, followed in November by an additional 56 medium-term observers to assess the political environment surrounding voter registration. In addition to the long-term observers already on the ground, 30 observers traveled throughout Sudan to visit registration sites in the North and South, and 26 observers were deployed to the eight out-of-country registration locations. The Carter Center deployed more than 50 short-term observers to assess voting, counting, and tabulation for the referendum held Jan. 9-15, 2011.
The observation mission congratulated the people of Sudan for successfully conducting the historic referendum, which was marked by an overwhelming turnout during a peaceful and orderly seven-day voting period. The Carter Center found that the process was broadly consistent with international standards for democratic elections and represented the genuine will of the electorate. Despite many obstacles and challenges with administration of the referendum, almost all registered Southern Sudanese were able to exercise their right to self-determination.
Following the 2010 general elections and 2011 referendum, The Carter Center maintained a presence in both countries to observe each country's political environment and transition.
In Sudan, Carter Center experts tracked developments from Khartoum related to democratic processes, including discussions around anticipated popular consultations in Blue Nile and South Kordofan, remaining outcomes of the peace agreement, and a possible constitutional review process. The Center released public statements commenting on the popular consultations on July 15, Aug. 26, and Oct.12, 2011.
In South Sudan, the Center maintained its presence after the referendum to observe, analyze, and comment on the drafting of a transitional constitution as well as critical pieces of legislation that would become the backbone of the world's newest democracy: the political parties act and national elections act. The Center released a public statement on July 2, 2011, on the draft transitional constitution, encouraging an inclusive process and consideration of key international standards, particularly that the principles of separation of powers be upheld. On Nov. 16, 2011, and Feb. 7, 2012, the Center released public statements offering analysis and recommendations for the Elections Act and Political Parties Act that reflected international standards and best practices.
The transparency and legitimacy of elections are greatly strengthened when national observer groups play a substantial role in providing accurate and impartial assessments of the electoral process. Around the April 2010 general elections, the Center supported six civil society organizations as they recruited, trained, and deployed 5,625 citizen observers. Partner organizations released regular public reports during the election period commenting on the elections and offering recommendations to improve the process. Partners noted that in some locations, there were inadequate materials, including ballots, and that identification procedures weren't always followed properly. They also pointed out problems with procedures for assisted voting that compromised the secrecy of the ballot, and reported intimidation and harassment of voters and observers.
For the 2011 referendum, the Center supported five organizations that recruited, trained, and deployed over 3,000 observers across all of Sudan's 25 states as well as Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia. The Center's support included technical and financial assistance to conduct a survey to gauge the integrity of the voter registration process, which, in combination with data gathered by observers during the registration process, allowed partner organizations to draw conclusions about the integrity of the voters list.
The Center's first program in Sudan began in 1986 with agricultural development work focused on helping farmers to improve crop yields. The Center's efforts have since expanded into additional programs – including the prevention or elimination of devastating neglected tropical diseases: Guinea worm disease, river blindness, and trachoma.
Current Status: Indigenous Transmission Stopped, 2002
Certification of Dracunculiasis Elimination: Pending
When the Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program was initiated in 1995, civil war impeded access to many Guinea worm-endemic areas, especially communities in the south. The same year, President Carter brokered the "Guinea worm cease-fire," at the time considered the longest humanitarian cease-fire in history. Conflict was suspended for six months, allowing health workers to distribute medicine and preventative health measures including cloth water filters, ivermectin for river blindness, childhood immunizations, and vitamin A. During the cease-fire, the Guinea worm program was able to access more than 2,000 Guinea worm-endemic villages and distribute more than 200,000 cloth filters. The program continued to build on this initial success even as conflict resumed, distributing an additional 600,000 cloth filters over the next four years. Cases consequently declined from 118,578 reported in 1996 to about 54,890 reported in 2000.
In 2001, The Carter Center and its partners, including Health Development International, Hydro Polymers of Norsk Hydro, Johnson & Johnson, and Norwegian Church Aid spearheaded the Sudan Pipe Filter Project. In only a few months, the project worked to produce, assemble, and distribute more than 9 million pipe filters, one for each at-risk person in Sudan. These portable, straw-like plastic pipes equipped with nylon filters would help ensure that drinking water was free of tiny water fleas (copepods) carrying Guinea worm larvae. Additionally, a targeted health education campaign was launched, including flip charts, radio public service announcements, and community demonstrations. The last indigenous case was reported in 2002, documenting the interruption of indigenous transmission of Guinea worm disease in northern Sudan, currently the Republic of Sudan. (Note: While the Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program continued after 2002, its focus was on the southern region of the nation, which seceded from Sudan in 2011 and became the independent country of South Sudan. The South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Programis ongoing.)
In 2013, when three cases of Guinea worm were reported in the village of Kafia Kingi, near the Sudan-South Sudan border, Sudan's Ministry of Health immediately conducted active surveillance and interventions in Kafia-Kingi and four nearby villages. Although the program suspected that the cases were imported from South Sudan, village volunteers continued to conduct health education and house-to-house searches for cases twice a month, distribute cloth filters, and apply Abate, donated by BASF, to water sources monthly. As of 2014, no additional cases have been reported in Sudan.
The Carter Center began assisting Sudan's River Blindness (onchocerciasis) Program in 1995, formally establishing a presence in 1997 after the Center secured funding from the Lions Clubs International Foundation. Since then, the Center has worked with the government, other nongovernmental organizations, and the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control, under the umbrella of the National Onchocerciasis Task Force, to establish community-based treatment programs, which raise awareness in villages and enable the distribution of Mectizan® (ivermectin, donated by Merck).
The Carter Center has worked with the national program in three focus areas in Sudan: Abu Hamad (River Nile state), Radom (South Darfur state) and Galabat (Gedarif state).In December of that year, at the invitation of the government of Sudan, the Lions-Carter Center Sightfirst Initiative expanded technical and financial assistance to support a new onchocerciasis elimination effort in the isolated desert focus of Abu Hamad, with a strategy based on increasing mass distribution of Mectizan from annual to every six months as a part of the country's staggered shift from control to elimination. The following year, Sudan began scaling up treatments to twice per year.
After a Carter Center-supported impact assessment in Abu Hamad in 2011 concluded that transmission had been interrupted, the government formally announced success in the focus area and placed the area under a three year post-treatment surveillance (PTS) period in May 2012. Read the statement. During this period health education was provided at the community level, schools, and mosques to inform community members why biannual mass treatment was halted while surveillance of river blindness vectors continued. The communities were also sensitized to their responsibility to report any potential cases of onchocerciasis to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment.
During the PTS period, there was no evidence of renewed transmission of the disease. The Sudan Federal Ministry of Health on Oct. 15, 2015 officially announced elimination of transmission of onchocerciasis from Abu Hamad after treatments were stopped in 2012 and three years of close monitoring showed no return of infection. Read the statement. Abu Hamad is the first African focus to complete the WHO guidelines to demonstrate elimination of river blindness transmission.
In 2015, The Carter Center assisted in the distribution of more than 140,000 Mectizan treatments in Galabat and Radom. The Center is also assisting in an assessment of a suspected focus area in Khory Abus. The Federal Ministry of Health pays for the entire program, with The Center supporting some assessment activities through a molecular lab equipped and trained in collaboration with the RBEP’s partners at the University of South Florida.
Since 1999, The Carter Center has assisted the Trachoma Control Program in Sudan in collaboration with the government, nongovernmental organizations, and funding partners. This collective effort has enabled trachoma prevalence mapping and implementation of SAFE strategy interventions. SAFE represents the four-pronged strategy to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health problem, consisting of Surgery for those facing imminent threat of blindness (trichiasis), Antibiotics for annual treatment, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental sanitation (latrines).
The Carter Center supports the full SAFE strategy in Sudan. In 2015, the Center supported 766 trichiasis surgeries, assisted with the distribution of 1,576,432 doses of azithromycin through mass drug administration, and supported ongoing trachoma health education in 187 villages in Sudan. The full SAFE strategy is implemented in eight targeted districts in Sudan. The S, A, and F interventions are directly supported by The Carter Center, Sightsavers, and the Federal Ministry of Health. The Center provides advocacy for the E component.
The Carter Center has collaborated with the Federal Ministries of Health and Education to develop a national school health program to train schoolteachers to educate their students about trachoma control. This new school health curriculum was developed and successfully piloted in 2015.
The Carter Center worked in Sudan from 1986 to 1992 to teach small-scale farm families superior farming techniques to increase grain crop yields. Led by the late Nobel Peace Prize laureate Dr. Norman Borlaug, the program was a joint venture between The Carter Center and the Sasakawa Africa Association. The program provided farmers with credit for fertilizers and enhanced seeds to grow test plots, often yielding 200 to 400 percent more crops. Participating farmers went on to teach others, creating a ripple effect to stimulate self-sufficiency. One notable success was for the period from 1985-1986 to 1991-1992, when wheat production increased by over 950 percent compared to the base year 1984-1985 and met country demand in 1991-1992.
Additionally, the program identified less costly, more efficient harvesting methods and local markets for these surpluses. The five-year project in Sudan was completed in 1992.
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Size: 1,861,484 square kilometers
Population: 36,108,853 (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 47 percent
Life expectancy: 64 years
Ethnic groups: Sudanese Arab, Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Source: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook 2016