The creation of South Sudan in 2011 did not bring an end to conflict within the new Sudan’s borders. Rebels and government forces continue to clash in Darfur and in what is known as the “Two Areas” in the south of the country. In January 2014, Sudan’s president, Omar Al-Bashir, announced the opening of a "National Dialogue" on peace and national unity, the economy, basic rights and freedoms, national identity, and constitutional review and governance. Since that time, The Carter Center has been working behind the scenes to encourage conversation and understanding, in hopes of paving the way for a permanent peace.
The Center’s Conflict Resolution Program is also working to ease the tensions that still exist between South Sudan and Sudan, which mostly revolve around the oil pipeline between the two countries, oil revenue, territorial disputes, and support to armed groups operating in the rival country.
In 2013, the Center created the Sudan-South Sudan Dialogue Group, a forum in which key individuals from both countries can generate ideas about what needs to be done in practical terms to sustain peace. The initiative is co-chaired by Gen. Lazaro Sumbeiywo, chief mediator of the 2005 Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and Ambassador David Kapya, special adviser to the former president of Tanzania, Benjamin Mkapa. At present, the Dialogue Group primarily works to encourage the implementation of the 2012 Cooperation Agreements and other similar bilateral agreements between Sudan and South Sudan.