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Waging Peace Through Elections

View table of elections monitored by The Carter Center: 115 Elections in 40 Countries

Read Carter Center Election Reports

Since 1989, The Carter Center has observed 115 elections in 40 countries (listed below). Missions are undertaken only upon the invitation or consent of all major parties to an election.

Observers bring a reputation for impartiality, and their presence helps to reassure voters that they can safely and secretly cast their ballots. As the eyes and ears of the international community, observers also help deter fraud. Carter Center observation projects generally begin well in advance of elections. Observer teams are often in a country to assess registration exercises and political campaigns. During elections, the observers monitor voting and counting and remain after the ballots have been counted to monitor vote tabulation.

Before an election, Carter Center observers meet with election officials and party leaders to discuss electoral procedures. Sometimes they mediate election disputes and help all sides to agree on election rules. During this phase, assessments are made of the voter registration process, voter education efforts, and the fairness of the campaign "field of play."

On election day, observers are dispatched with systematic survey forms to urban and rural areas to witness preparations at poll openings, voting, and vote counting to try to determine whether the vote was secret and fair at the sites they visited. In addition to talking with polling site officials and party witnesses, observers talk with citizens and note any complaints.

After polls close, delegates observe the counting of votes and the delivery of ballot boxes. Then, the entire delegation meets to discuss its observations and issue a statement of findings as a group. If necessary, qualified high-level observers can serve as mediators to facilitate the peaceful transfer of power.

Once election results are confirmed, The Carter Center sometimes remains engaged in a country through the inauguration of a new president and beyond, particularly in countries where the Center has had or anticipates a long-term involvement. Post-election activities to strengthen people's confidence in their democratic institutions can take many forms, and in the past, have included projects to protect and promote human rights, build civil society, refine the democratic electoral process, and address economic or development issues.

Elections Monitored by The Carter Center:
115 Elections in 40 Countries

(Updated Oct. 18, 2023)

  • Madagascar
    (December 2013*)
  • Mali
    (April 2002)
  • Mexico
    (July 1992, August 1994, July 1997, July 2000)
  • Mozambique
    (December 1999, November 2003, December 2004, October 2014)
  • Muscogee (Creek) Nation
    (November 2019)
  • Myanmar
    (November 2015, November 2020)
  • Nepal
    (April 2008, April 2009*, November 2013, December 2017)
  • Nicaragua
    (February 1990, October 1996, November 2000, November 2001, November 2006)
  • Nigeria 
    (December 1998, January 1999, February 20, 1999, Feb. 27, 1999)
  • Occupied Palestinian Territory 
    (January 1996, January 2005, January 2006)
  • Panama 
    (May 1989, May 1994)
  • Paraguay 
    (May 1993)
  • Peru 
    (April 2000, April 2001)
  • Philippines
    (May 2010*, May 2016*)
  • Sierra Leone 
    (May 2002, November 2012)
  • Sudan
    (April 2010, January 2011)
  • Timor-Leste
    (August 1999, August 2001, April 2002, June 2007)
  • Tunisia
    (October 2011, October 2014, November 2014, September 2019, October 2019, December 2022)
  • Venezuela 
    (December 1998, July 2000, August 2004, December 2006*)
  • Zambia 
    (October 1991, December 2001, August 2016)
  • Zimbabwe
    (August 2023)

*These missions were targeted or focused observations and did not result in statements on the overall administration of the electoral process.