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Jan. 23, 2024
Lessons Learned Processes: Advancing to the Next Elections
The Carter Center, in collaboration with International Foundation for Electoral Systems, created guidelines providing practical information on best practices for holding post-election lessons learned exercises. 

Oct. 17, 2023
2022 Georgia Risk-Limiting Audit Final Report (PDF)
The Carter Center observed the post-election, risk-limiting audit for the 2022 midterm elections in Georgia. This final report summarizes the Center’s observations, findings, and recommendations.

Sept. 12, 2023
NGO Submission to the U. N. Human Rights Committee (PDF)
The Carter Center submitted this report to the U.N. Human Rights Committee as part of the 5th periodic review of the United States under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It addresses issues relevant to the right to participate in public affairs, enshrined in Article 25 of the covenant. The report was submitted on Sept. 12, 2023. This version has undergone a further style and grammatical edit.

July 26, 2023 
Livestreaming Ballot Tabulation: Guidance to Ensure Effective Transparency
Election officials across the country face increased public calls for greater electoral transparency. As a result, many election departments are considering providing or have already opted to provide livestreams of their ballot tabulation processes.

March 22, 2023
Election Obligations and Standards | A Carter Center Assessment Manual (Second Edition)
This handbook is a companion to the Carter Center’s Election Obligations and Standards database. This publicly accessible resource links human rights obligations and commitments in public international law with key parts of the electoral process.

June 15, 2022
Risk-Limiting Audits: A Guide for Election Observation Efforts
The risk-limiting audit (RLA) is a statistical technique for limiting the risk of certifying an incorrect election outcome — that is, the risk that the apparent winner did not in fact receive the most votes. A random sample of paper ballots is visually checked by auditors, and the results are compared with the outcome reported by the tabulator/scanner equipment. If there is sufficiently strong statistical evidence based on this sample that the reported outcome was correct, the audit stops and the tabulated result is confirmed. If evidence from the sample is inconclusive, another sample is drawn, potentially progressing all the way to a full hand recount. The RLA thus either confirms the reported outcome or corrects it.

Feb. 23, 2022
Analysis of the Botnets that Operated in Honduras During the Primary and General Elections of 2021 | Análisis de las redes de bots que han operado en Honduras en las elecciones primarias y generales de 2021
The Carter Center analyzed social media in Honduras during the 2021 electoral process, focusing on the period around the primaries in March and the general election in November. The purpose was to assess the political debate on social networks during the elections, the extent of disinformation and how it spread, and the role played by Honduran politicians.

Nov. 11, 2021
Monitoring Online Political Advertising: A Toolkit
During an electoral process, electoral actors, whether contestants or noncontestants, have the right to advertise political ideas in accordance with the right of expression. However, political advertising may be subject to reasonable limitations through regulations imposed by domestic law, including who can run political advertisements, when and where they may run advertisements, restrictions on advertising expenditure levels, and reporting and disclosure requirements to ensure transparency, accountability, and a level playing field. Increasingly, election contestants and noncontestants are using social media platforms to advertise political ideas.

Oct. 6, 2021
The Big Lie and Big Tech: Misinformation Repeat Offenders and Social Media in the 2020 U.S. Election (PDF)
The Carter Center today published “The Big Lie and Big Tech,” a new report that details the role played by “repeat offenders”—media known to repeatedly publish false and misleading information—in spreading election fraud narratives in online echo chambers during the 2020 election.

October 2021
Conference Report | The Carter-Baker Commission: 16 Years Later
We have long admired the wisdom and sage approaches that President Jimmy Carter and Secretary James A. Baker, III, have exhibited throughout their careers in public service. Understanding that the delicate balance of our democracy pivots on a fulcrum of support for public projects and policy, they have consistently emphasized strategies designed to achieve key objectives and gain support from both sides of the political aisle.

November 2020
The Georgia Risk-Limiting Audit/Hand Tally: A Carter Center Observation Report
Following the November 2020 election, Georgia conducted a risk-limiting audit (RLA) of the presidential race. This audit constituted the largest hand tally of an election race in U.S. history. The Carter Center, which has observed more than 110 elections in 39 countries, was the only nonpartisan organization credentialed by the Office of the Secretary of State to provide an impartial assessment of the implementation of the audit process. The Center had the same access provided to the political party monitors who were present throughout the state. In deploying independent monitors to observe the Georgia RLA, The Carter Center hoped to bolster voter confidence in Georgia’s electoral process by assessing the state’s efforts to improve the transparency of its elections.

Oct. 30, 2020
Exploring Women’s Participation in Political Life in Tunisia With a Focus on the 2019 Elections (PDF)
This report details the research methodology and approach in assessing the status of women and barriers to their participation in various aspects of the electoral process and as stakeholders. It presents key findings and offers recommendations to all stakeholders to increase women’s full political participation in future elections.
Translations: En français | بالعربية

March 31, 2019
Broadening Participation of Women of Ethnic Political Parties in the Peace Process in Myanmar (PDF) | Myanmar version (PDF)
This report identifies a large array of needs that still require to be addressed to ensure greater inclusion of women’s and civilian voices in the Myanmar peace process. It also adds to the limited public information on the ethnic political parties, their structures, strategies, visions of the peace process, and the role they play or could play in peace talks. The findings and conclusions provide a unique platform for future programming in support of women’s participation in the peace process, as well as a better understanding of the ethnic political parties of Myanmar.

March 7, 2019
Legal Brief on Gender Quota in Kenya (PDF)
This brief reviews the current legal posture of the two-thirds gender rule in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution, which mandates that no more than two-thirds of the members of any elected or appointed public body be of the same gender. It traces the developments of the two-thirds gender rule legislation from its beginning in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution until the most recent implementation attempt in early 2019.

March 4, 2019
Election Obligations and Standards: An Implementation Guide for National Human Rights Institutions (PDF)
As part of their broad mandate to protect and promote human rights, national human rights institutions have a key role to play in protecting and promoting the right to participate in public affairs, including elections. This handbook provides practical steps for organizations to take in implementing a plan to bolster human rights through the election process.

Nov. 30, 2018
Youth and Women’s Consultations on Political Participation (PDF)
This report provides the findings of consultative forums conducted from May through August 2018 with youth and women in eight counties of Kenya on the factors that hinder and promote their political participation. The report offers recommendations to support their increased participation in the political sphere.

Feb 2, 2018
Human Rights and Election Standards: A Plan of Action (PDF)
Through their joint initiative on Human Rights and Election Standards, the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and The Carter Center have worked to bring the human rights and election communities closer and to foster stronger links and communication between them. This Plan of Action aims to advance human rights related to genuine democratic elections by charting a course of practical steps toward our shared goals.

Nov. 3, 2017
A State Affair: Privatizing Congo’s Copper Sector (PDF) (French)
This report is the culmination of years of research on the contractual and financial practices of the Democratic Republic of Congo’s state-owned mining company, Gécamines, and its most important investment partners. The analysis is based on 200 interviews and a review of over 100 mining contracts, at least 1,000 corporate documents, and data from the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative covering 2007–2014.

Feb. 2, 2016
25 Years of Election Observation at The Carter Center (PDF)
A brief overview of the history of The Carter Center's election observation work over the 25 years between 1989 and 2014 reveals a gradual evolution as the Center expanded its work around the world. Simultaneously, the role of election observation grew significantly within the Center itself, as did the role the Center plays in the field internationally.

Oct. 17, 2014
Election Obligations and Standards: A Carter Center Assessment Manual (PDF)
This handbook serves as a companion to the Carter Center's EOS database and summarizes key election issues related to core parts of the electoral process and references some of the relevant sources of obligations, including treaties as well as soft law. This handbook was developed in close collaboration with International IDEA, whose “International Obligations for Elections: Guidelines for Legal Frameworks” was also released in the autumn of 2014. This collaboration enriched both initiatives.
Manual de Obligacion y Estándares Electorales »
Obligations et Normes Électorales »
دليل تقييم صادر عن مركز كارتر االلتزامات والمعايير االنتخابية

June 17, 2014

Final Report: "Lessons Learned From the 2011 Elections": The Relation Between Civil Society and the ISIE (PDF)
In late 2013 and early 2014, 268 stakeholders in Tunisia's democratic transition came together for a series of workshops examining lessons learned during the October 2011 elections. Participants articulated recommendations in support of the anticipated national elections in 2014 for consideration by various Tunisian stakeholders, including the Instance Supérieure Indépendante pour les Elections, or the ISIE. This report summarizes the process and outcomes of the workshop series, and offers recommendations for consideration by Tunisia's electoral authorities in advance of anticipated presidential and parliamentary elections. Translation: إقرأ في اللغة العربية

May 5, 2014
Final Report: The 2014 Constitution-Drafting Assembly Elections in Libya (PDF) (link currently unavailable) 
Following an invitation from the High National Election Commission, The Carter Center deployed a team of six experts to Libya to assess the elections for a 60-member constituent assembly, or the constitution-drafting assembly, the body charged with drafting a new Libyan constitution according to Libya's interim constitution. The Carter Center team visited Libya in December to learn about the candidate registration process and other key preparations and returned in mid-January to conduct an expert mission focused on key election administration issues.

March 19, 2014
Internet Voting Pilot: Norway's 2013 Parliamentary Elections (PDF)
The Carter Center was invited to observe the Internet voting trials of the Norwegian Parliamentary Elections of 2013. In response to the invitation, the Center decided to deploy a one-person Expert Study Mission in close coordination with a separate mission deployed by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe/Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE/ODIHR). Using the Norwegian 2013 elections, this report attempts to address two separate but related issues: 1) the relationship between Internet voting in uncontrolled environments and generally accepted standards for genuine democratic elections, and 2) the extent to which Internet voting is observable.

Jan. 14, 2013
Groundbreaking Reports on Voter ID Issued
The Carter Center and the ACE Electoral Knowledge Network are pleased to announce the release of two new resources on voter identification processes and practices.  The reports provide groundbreaking analysis of a range of critical electoral issues on voter identification, the right to vote, and related international standards and election administration practices.  The Carter Center report includes a comparative analysis of voter identification processes in Africa and Latin America, while the ACE report focuses on the delicate balance between preventing fraud and protecting the right to vote.

Sept. 1, 2012
Final Report: People's National Assembly Elections in Algeria
Following a set of political and electoral reform measures implemented in January 2012, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika called for elections for the People's National Assembly of Algeria on May 10, 2012. Invitations to observe the elections were extended to a number of organizations, including The Carter Center. In lieu of deploying an observation mission, the Center decided to send a small election expert mission to assess particular aspects of the election process as well as the general evolution of the democratic environment in Algeria. The Center offers this report in the spirit of cooperation and assistance to indicate several areas in which positive progress has been made as well as some areas in which the conduct of elections and their democratic context could be further improved.

July 25, 2012
Overview of State Obligations Relevant to Democratic Governance and Democratic Elections (PDF)
This brief paper, co-authored with Democracy Reporting International, gives an overview of the extent to which states are obliged to organize themselves as a democracy and to hold genuine elections, and describes related gaps in international law. A comprehensive table summarizes the obligations and their content and meaning.

July 25, 2012
Strengthening International Law to Support Democratic Governance and Genuine Elections (PDF)
This comprehensive study, co-authored with Democracy Reporting International, discusses state obligations under international law relevant to democratic governance and genuine elections in detail. It also outlines gaps in current international law and recommends specific points for inclusion in future general comments by the United Nations Human Rights Committee.

Jan. 19, 2012
The Carter Center Handbook on Observing Electronic Voting (PDF)
This handbook is designed to supplement other tools and resources available to Carter Center election observation missions (EOMs). It therefore does not cover every aspect of an election observation mission. Instead, it provides additional detail regarding those issues related to the use of e-voting technologies.

Oct. 1, 2007
Developing a Methodology for Observing Electronic Voting (PDF)
The increasing use of new electronic voting (e-voting) technologies in elections around the world has been recognized by the international election observation community as one of the paramount challenges facing election observation today. As a whole, international election observation organizations have had relatively little experience observing elections in which e-voting technologies are used. In addition, the inherent lack of transparency of electronic voting technologies discourages easy observation.

March 23, 2007
Building Consensus on Principles for International Election Observation (PDF)
This brief report outlines the consensus-building process that led to the endorsement of the Declaration of Principles for International Election Observation and the Code of conduct for International Election Observers and discusses some of the continuing challenges facing the election observation community as a whole.

Dec. 1, 2005
Summary of Proceedings: Automated Voting and Election Observation, The Carter Center,
March 17-18, 2005

Introduction and link to the Summary of Proceedings: Automated Voting and Election Observation. Provides an overview of the main areas of discussion during the Carter Center-convened meeting of election authorities, academics, technical experts, and representatives from organizations involved in international election observation. Held March 17-18, 2005, in Atlanta. This summary may not reflect the exact views of each participant. A meeting agenda and list of participants are also attached.

Jan. 1, 2000
The Carter Center in Liberia: Promoting Human Rights and Rule of Law in Difficult Transitional Settings (PDF)
This report is a review and assessment of the record of The Carter Center’s long-term involvement in Liberia, with particular attention to post-election programs.

June 1, 1998
Democratisation From The Outside In: NGO and International Efforts to Promote Open Elections
(No. 107) (PDF)

Reprint of an article by Wesleyan University's Vikram K. Chand that discusses the growth of international and NGO monitoring efforts and assesses their scope, contribution, and limits (PDF format).

Nov. 1, 1996
The Journey to Democracy: 1986-1996 (PDF)
Report chronicling the Council of Freely Elected Heads of Governments' role in the democratization of Latin America and the Caribbean through election-monitoring and other activities. Foreword by Jimmy Carter and introduction by Robert Pastor.

June 1, 1993
Moderating Ethnic Tensions by Electoral Mediation (PDF)
An overview of the role of international mediators in the electoral process, with special focus on the October 1992 elections in Guyana. A Carter Center publication by David J. Carroll and Robert A. Pastor, June 1993.

Nov. 1, 1992
The International Observation of the U.S. Elections (Vol. III, No. 1, November 1992) (PDF)
Report from the Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government and the Latin American and Caribbean Program of a visit by a Mexican team to observe the 1992 U.S. elections.

May 10, 1998
Whether Rich or Poor, I Have the Same Rights as a Human Being (PDF)
A report on a series of 13 focus groups conducted in Liberia by The Carter Center.

March 1, 1988
Myth, Reality, and the Future in Southern Africa: Challenges for a New Administration (PDF)
Report from the conference, "Myth, Reality, and the Future in Southern Africa: Challenges for a New Administration," a policy briefing sponsored by The Carter Center and the Ford Foundation in March 1988.

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